Blood pressure is the measure of the force of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps. Two numbers represent your blood pressure: The first number (systolic pressure) represents the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats, while the second number (diastolic pressure) represents the pressure when your heart is resting in between beats. An ideal blood pressure reading is 120/80 mmHg, with anything above this considered high.
There are several risk factors that can increase your chances of developing high blood pressure. These include age, family history, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, stress, excessive alcohol consumption, and a diet high in sodium and low in potassium. People of African descent are also at higher risk of developing high blood pressure compared to people of other ethnicities.
High blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other complications such as kidney failure, eye damage, and cognitive impairment. When left untreated, hypertension can damage the walls of your arteries, making them more susceptible to the buildup of fatty deposits, which can lead to atherosclerosis. This condition narrows the arteries, making it more difficult for blood to flow, resulting in an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
Managing high blood pressure involves making certain lifestyle changes, including exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products, reducing salt intake, quitting smoking, and limiting alcohol consumption. Treatment options may include medication such as diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers.
Regular blood pressure checks are essential to detect hypertension in its early stages. This is particularly important for individuals who are at high risk of developing high blood pressure. Starting at age 20, everyone should have their blood pressure checked every two years, and more frequently if you have high blood pressure or other risk factors.
In conclusion, high blood pressure is a major health concern that affects millions of people worldwide. Understanding the risks of high blood pressure, along with regular monitoring, can help you manage the condition effectively and prevent serious complications. With the right lifestyle modifications and medical intervention, individuals with high blood pressure can live a healthy and fulfilling life.